The seven annual feasts were spread over seven months (Deuteronomy 16, Leviticus 23), at set times appointed by God. They foreshadow the set times of God's work of redemption through His Son, Jesus, as affecting both Jesus and believers in him.
The term "passover" is to be considered in the sense of "hovering over", i.e. to protect or deliver. God's presence overshadowed His people for their protection. The nation of Israel was transferred from physical slavery leading to death in Egypt, to lifelong service to God. Likewise, the believer in Christ is delivered from spiritual slavery (bondage to sin) leading to death, to a life of service to Christ, leading to eternal life. Jesus, the Lamb of God, is our Passover.
1 Corinthians 5:7-8, "Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth."
The Feast of Unleavened Bread
This was a continuation of the Passover. Yeast (or leaven) promotes fermentation and Scripture uses yeast as a type of sin (1 Corinthians 5:6,7). Forgiveness for our sins can be obtained through the intercession of Christ, our mediator. Entry to this feast is possible only because "Christ our passover is sacrificed for us." Both the Passover and the feast without leaven show essentials for the believer. As there were 7 days eating bread without yeast, so for the believer there should be a complete life separate from sin. The sacrifice of Christ is of no benefit unless sinful yeast is excluded from our life.
The Feast of Firstfruits
This prefigured the resurrection of Jesus. The ceremony took place on the third day from the Passover; Jesus rose the third day (Matthew 16:21). 1 Corinthians 15:20, "But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept." Until the sheaf of the firstfruits had been presented to the Lord, no one was permitted to eat bread, parched corn, or green ears. So, until God had reaped the firstfruits from the tomb in the garden, there could be no gathering of the harvest (1 Corinthians 15:23).
The Feast of Weeks (or Pentecost / Harvest)
This was held at the beginning of wheat harvesting, seven weeks from the Feast of Firstfruits (Leviticus 23:15-16). In the New Testament it is called Pentecost (Greek 'pente' = fifty). This festival commemorated the giving of the Law which took place 50 days after the Sabbath following the Passover. On the day of Pentecost following Jesus' resurrection (Acts 2), a new revelation was given to the people in the gospel preached by the apostles, with the invitation to all to enter a covenant with God through baptism into Christ.
Acts 2:38, "Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost."
The Feast of Trumpets
Almost four months after the Pentecost, though not at a precise interval, the feast of Trumpets was a day of rest celebrated with trumpet blasts and sacrifices when the nation was presented before God. This prefigured the time when the Lord came down from heaven with the trumpet call of God. This was fulfilled in 70AD.
1 Thessalonians 4:16, "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God..."
1 Corinthians 15:52, "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound..."
The Day of Atonement
On this day the priests offered sacrifices of atonement for themselves and the people. The ordinance of the scape-goat was a figure of the death and resurrection of Christ, and the atonement thereby made, which pointed forward to the work of redemption accomplished by Christ.
Hebrews 9:7,11, "But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people: But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;"
Hebrews 9:24-26, "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself."
The Feast of Tabernacles (or Booths)
The feast of tabernacles commemorated their wandering forty years in the wilderness, but foreshadowed when they were given a judgment period of 40 years to repent before the destruction of Jerusalem. In contrast to the Day of Atonement, during which the Israelites were to afflict themselves, during this festival they are commanded to rejoice. This third great festival held at the end of the harvest prefigured when the redeemed rejoiced before God (Revelation 7:9-17). The harvest of faithful ones represented the final ingathering developed out of the waving of the first single sheaf (typifying the Lord Jesus Christ) on the first day of the week following Passover.
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